Curso 03

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Lesson 3 - Triesma Leciono[modificar]

Questions[modificar]

So far we have been making simple statements in Ido, such as:
Me vidas la kato or Me tushas la hundo.
Now it is time to consider how we can make questions. The English language uses two basic formulae:
(1) A few verbs can be put into the question form by changing the word order, for example:
'I must' becomes 'Must I?' 'He is' becomes 'Is he?' and 'They can' becomes 'Can they?'.
(2) Then there are other verbs which are turned into the question form by putting 'do' or 'does' at the beginning of the sentece:
'He sings' becomes 'Does he sing?', and 'You come' becomes 'Do you come?'

In Ido question-making is much simpler. Firstly the words are kept in exactly the same order as for a statement, but to make it clear that a question is being asked the word 'Ka/Kad' is placed at the beginning of the sentence.
'Ka/Kad' has no equivalent in English:
Vu havas kato (You've got a cat) becomes ..... Ka vu havas kato? (Do you have a cat?) Have you got a cat?
Me manjas ovo (I am eating an egg) becomes ..... Ka me manjas ovo? (Am I eating an egg?)

Note as with 'ed/e', if the following word begins with a vowel then it is usual, though not obligatory, to use 'kad' instead: Il mustas (He must) -> Kad il mustas? (Must he?), or, you may use 'kad' alone irrespective of the following words.

Note, if there is a word like who, where, etc., 'ka/kad' is not used:
Ube vu habitas? Where do you live?
Kad vu komprenis? - Did you understand?

Vortaro (Vocabulary)[modificar]

Learn the following words by heart:

a / ad to
blanka white
irar to go
nigra black
parko park
rivero river
venar to come
arboro tree
bruna brown
jupo skirt
no no
policisto policeman
portar to carry, to wear
yes yes
bona good
ibe there
mala bad
ol it
ponto bridge
ucelo bird

Exerco 1 (Exercise 1)[modificar]

Examples to read and translate. (Click here to go to the answers):

 1. Me es, Ka me es? 
2. Il es, Kad il es?
3. Vu havas, Ka vu havas?
4. Ka me es bona? No.
5. Ka vu es bela? Yes
6. Ka Mary portas bela jupo?
7. Yes, el portas bela blanka jupo.
8. Ka la policisto es en la parko?
9. Kad il es en la parko?
10. No, il ne es hike hodie.
11. Ka vu havas nigra hundo?
12. No, me havas bruna hundo.
13. Il drinkas.
14. Kad il drinkas?
15. Ka vu havas kato?
16. Yes, me havas blanka kato.
17. Kad el venas?
18. No, el iras a la ponto.
19. Ka la ucelo drinkas?
20. Ka la ucelo es sur la ponto?
21. No, ol ne es ibe.
22. El manjas.
23. Kad el manjas?
24. Kad el manjas fisho?
25. Ka la fisho es en la aquo?
26. Yes, ol es en la aquo, e la hundo anke.

The plural[modificar]

In English, to show that we are talking about more than one thing, we usually add an 's', e.g. 'cat' becomes 'cats', 'pig' becomes 'pigs', etc.
In Ido, forming the plural is also very simple. The -o ending of the noun is changed to an -i, so that 'kato' (cat) becomes 'kati' (cats), 'hundo' (dog) becomes 'hundi' (dogs) and so on without exception.

The adjective is invariable; but when used without a noun, it becomes a noun itself, and takes the plural, if necessary:
blanka hundi - white dogs, nigra kavali - black horses
La blanki e la nigri - The whites and the blacks.

The Definite Article - 'le' for the plural[modificar]

The definite article 'le' is used when there is no other sign of plural:
the ayes and the nays - le yes e le no
blanka hundi - white dogs, nigra kavali - black horses
Le blanka e le nigra - The whites and the blacks.

Exerco 2 (Exercise 2)[modificar]

Examples to read and translate (Click here to go to the answers):

 1. kato, kati 
2. tablo, tabli
3. Me vidas la kato.
4. Vu vidas la kati.
5. La kati es sur la tabli.
6. La kato dormas dop la flori.
7. La libri es nigra.
8. Kad il prizas pomi?
9. La parki es bela.
10. Mary prizas blanka jupi.
11. Ka vu havas bela jupo?
12. La fishi es en la aquo.
13. La policisti ne es grosa.
14. La policisti chasas la yuni.
15. La musi chasas la kato.
16. La uceli es en la arbori.
17. La uceli es sur la ponti.
18. Ka la yuni es en la arbori?
19. La kavali drinkas la aquo.
20. La flori es en la taso sur la tablo.


Vortaro (Vocabulary)[modificar]

danko thank you
durstar to be thirsty
glaso glass
kafeo coffee
teo tea
me pregas please
yen here is
semblas ke it seems that
ma but
dezirar to desire, to want
hungrar to be hungry
glaso de lakto glass of milk
kafeerio cafe
kuko cake
taso de kafeo cup of coffee
pekunio money
esar to be

Konversado[modificar]

(En la kafeerio inter Peter e Mary)

P: Bon jorno, Mary! Quale vu standas?
M: Bon jorno, Peter! Me standas bone, danko. E vu?
P: Tre bone, danko. Ka vu durstas?
M: Yes, me durstas. Ube la kafeerio esas?
P: Yen la kafeerio! Ka vu deziras taso de kafeo?
M: No, danko. Me deziras glaso de lakto, me pregas.
P: Ka vu hungras?
M: Yes, me hungras.
P: Ka vu deziras kuko?
M: Yes, me pregas. Me prizas kuki.
P: Hm...Mary... Semblas ke me ne havas mea pekunii... Ka vu havas.....pekunio?

Exerco 3 (Exercise 3)[modificar]

Answer the questions (Click here to go to the (possible) answers):

 1. Quale vu nomesas? 
2. Quale vu standas?
3. Ka vu ofte drinkas lakto?
4. Ka vu havas bela domo?
5. Ka vu havas gardeno?
6. Ka vu havas kato?
7. Ka vu prizas kati?
8. Ka vu havas granda hundo?
9. Ka vu es en la parko?
10. Ka vu hungras?
11. Ka vu prizas kafeo?
12. Ka vu durstas?
13. Ka vu deziras kuko?
14. Ka vu es bona?
15. Ka vu prizas blanka musi?

Colours[modificar]

blanka white
bruna brown
griza grey
purpura purple
reda red
verda green
blua blue
flava yellow
nigra black
oranjea orange
rozea pink
violea violet

The imperative[modificar]

The imperative is the form of the verb used for giving orders and commands.

So far we have met the present tense ending -as, as in 'drinkas', 'manjas', etc.
To make the above words into commands is easy. You merely exchange the -as ending for -ez.
This gives for example: drinkez! (Drink!), manjez! (Eat!), venez! (Come!).

Vortaro (Vocabulary)[modificar]

apertez open!
irez go!
pozez put!
sideskez sit down!
tushez touch!
donez give!
klozez close!
levez pick up!
staceskez stand up!
krayono pencil
adsur onto/upon

Exerco 4 (Exercise 4)[modificar]

Examples to read and translate (Click here to go to the answers):

 1. Staceskez! 
2. Sideskez!
3. Apertez la buxo!
4. Manjez la pomo!
5. Apertez la libro!
6. Apertez la pordo!
7. Klozez la libro!
8. Klozez la fenestro!
9. Tushez la stulo!
10. Tushez la fenestro!
11. Drinkez vua kafeo!
12. Levez la libro!
13. Levez la stulo!
14. Levez la krayono!
15. Donez la libro a me!
16. Pozez la taso adsur la tablo!
17. Pozez la plado adsur la stulo!
18. Pozez la krayono adsur la tablo!
19. Pozez la libro e la krayono adsur la stulo!

Animals[modificar]

Note that the following can be either male or female. Distinction is made in the following lesson.

anado duck, drake
cervo deer
gorilo gorilla
hundo dog
kato cat
kavalo horse
leopardo leopard
muso mouse
porko pig
simio monkey
volfo wolf
bovo cow, bull
elefanto elephant
hano hen, cock
kamelo camel
kapro goat
krokodilo crocodile
leono lion
mutono sheep
tigro tiger
urso bear

Answers of the Exercises[modificar]

Exerco 1 - Solvi[modificar]

(Click here to return to the exercise)

 1. I am, Am I?
2. He is, Is he?
3. You have, Have you?
4. Am I good? No.
5. Are you beautiful? Yes.
6. Is Mary wearing a beautiful skirt?
7. Yes, she is wearing a beautiful white skirt.
8. Is the policeman in the park?
9. Is he in the park?
10. No, he is not here today.
11. Have you got a black dog?
12. No, I have a brown dog.
13. He is drinking.
14. Is he drinking?
15. Have you a cat?
16. Yes, I have a white cat.
17. Is she coming?
18. No, she is going to the bridge.
19. Is the bird drinking?
20. Is the bird on the bridge?
21. No, it is not there.
22. She is eating.
23. Is she eating?
24. Is she eating a fish?
25. Is the fish in the water?
26. Yes, it is in the water, and the dog as well.

Exerco 2 - Solvi[modificar]

(Click here to return to the exercise)

 1. a cat, cats
2. a table, tables
3. I see the cat.
4. You see the cats.
5. The cats are on the tables.
6. The cat is sleeping behind the flowers.
7. The books are black.
8. Does he like apples?
9. The parks are beautiful.
10. Mary likes white skirts.
11. Have you got a beautiful skirt?
12. The fish are in the water.
13. The policemen are not fat.
14. The policemen are chasing the teenagers.
15. The mice are chasing the cat.
16. The birds are in the trees.
17. The birds are on the bridges.
18. Are the children in the trees?
19. The horses are drinking the water.
20. The flowers are in the cup on the table.


Exerco 3 - Solvi[modificar]

(Click here to return to the exercise)

 1. Me nomesas Bebson Hochfeld 
2. Me standas tre bone
3. Yes, me tre ofte drinkas lakto.
4. Yes, me havas bela ma (but) mikra domo.
5. Yes, me havas mikra gardeno.
6. No, me ne havas un
7. No, me ne prizas kati.
8. No, me nek (neither) prizas hundo.
9. Yes, me es en la parko.
10. Yes, me es grosa e sempre hungras.
11. Yes, me tre prizas kafeo.
12. No, me ne durstas ma me hungras.
13. Yes, me multe deziras kuko.
14. Yes, me es tre bona segun me (as far as I know).
15. No, no, me ne prizas musi.


Exerco 4 - Solvi[modificar]

(Click here to return to the exercise)

 1. Stand up! 
2. Sit down!
3. Open the box!
4. Eat the apple!
5. Open the book!
6. Open the door!
7. Close the book!
8. Close the window!
9. Touch the chair!
10. Touch the window!
11. Drink your coffee!
12. Pick the book up!
13. Pick the chair up!
14. Pick up the pencil!
15. Give the book to me!
16. Put the cup on the table!
17. Put the plate on the chair!
18. Put the pencil on the table!

19. Put the book and the pencil on the chair!