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Explanatory Notes


Parts of Speech. — Every entry word — distinguished by boldface type — is followed by a part-of-speech label, normally abbreviated, with the exception of certain items for which this device would have proved confusing. Phrases, including noun and adjective phrases, which occur within the body of certain entries, are not so marked.

abandonamento n abandonment
abandonar v to abandon; abandonar se a to indulge in
abattite 1. pp of abatter; 2. adj downcast, dejected
Abel nprm Abel
-abile suffixo adjective [used with verbs in -ar] -able (=that can be . . .ed; that is worthy to be . . .ed)
ab ovo [L] ab ovo, from the beginning
acetic adj acetic


Pronunciation. — When the correct pronunciation or stress is not covered by the rules presented on pp. lii ff., the deviating features are respelled in italics immediately following the entry word. In phrases within the body of an entry, deviating pronunciations are not indicated again.

acaju () n 1. cashew; 2. mahogany; nuce de acaju cashew nut
agiotage (ajotaje) n agiotage, exchange business, stockbroking
allo·pathe () n allopath
approchar (-sh) v to approach (=to come or go near to)
coragiose (-jo-) adj courageous


Origin. — The language of origin of entry words which play the role of foreign words in the international vocabulary is indicated by a language label appearing in brackets immediately preceding the part-of-speech label.

addendum (pl addenda) [NL] n addendum
adieu [F] n farewell, adieu
baby [A] n baby
bar [A] n bar (=place where liquor is served)
bull-dog [A] n bulldog


Supplementary Notes. — Explanatory notes on the use of affixes, the occurrence of compounding elements and derivational bases, etc., are given in brackets.

a- prefixo [an- before -h- and vowels; used with nouns and adjectives] a-, an- (=not ; without, lacking . . . )
adelpho- n [occurring in compounds] adelpho-, adelph- (1. brother; 2. twin)


Deriving Stems. — Entry words which have derivatives on a distinct stem are accompanied by an indication of both stems in boldface type. For nouns of the type drama, the indication [-ma/-mat-] signifies that all derivatives are built like dramatic. For verbs of the type abstraher, the indication [-trah-/tract-] signifies that the first stem occurs with most suffixes, including the possible autonomous use of the suffixes -ition, -itive, -itor, -itori, -itoria, -itorio, -itura, while the second stem is the one occurring with the suffixes just listed in their special forms -ion, -ive, -or, -ori, -oria, -orio, ura. For verbs of the type ager, the indication [ag-/act-; -ig-/-act-] signifies that the first stem pair occurs in the simple verb, the second in prefix formations; the occurrence of the first and second stems obeys in either case the rule formulated for the type abstraher.

abstraher [-trah-/-tract-] v [Logic] to abstract
Hence: abstraction, abstracte

ager [ag-/act-; -ig-/-act-] v to act (=to be doing)
Hence: agenda; agente-agentia; agitar & agibile; action-actionero, actionista, actionar-actionabile, inaction; active-activitate, activar-activation, activo, inactive-inactivitate, radioactive etc.: actor; actrice; acto-actuario-actuariato, actuarial, actual-actualitate, actualisar-actualisation; actuar-actuation, interacto; coager &; reager &; retroager-retroaction, retroactive-retroactivitate; transiger &; litigar etc.

drama [-ma/-mat-] n drama
Hence: dramatic; dramatisar; drarnaturgo etc.; melodrama etc.

transiger [-ig-/-act-] v 1. to compromise (=to effect a compromise), 2. to transact
Hence: transigente-intransigente-intransigentia; transaction-transactional; transactar


English Renderings. — In the English renderings of international words a consistent attempt has been made to give translations rather than explanations. A rendering such as “spectator occupying standing room in the pit” would not be tolerated; instead the simple translation “standee” would appear. In rare instances of international words for which there is no English equivalent, the principle of “translation rather than explanation” had to be abandoned.

The temptation to explain the meaning of English words has, on the whole, been resisted. The Dictionary is intended for people who know English; encyclopedic information has been excluded. However, in some instances common sense seemed to dictate that even perfectly unambiguous terms should be further identified for the average user.

abattitor n one who knocks down
abbordage (-áje) n [Naut. ] (act of) boarding (a ship)
acet·amido (-ámido) n [Chem.] acetamide
acetona n [Chem.] acetone
allo·trope (ótrope) adj 1. [Chem.] allotropic; 2. [Zool.] allotropous
ambiente n environment (=all of the surrounding conditions and influences)


Arrangement of Meanings. — The English translations of international words are organized conceptually wherever more than one English concept corresponds to the international range of meaning envisaged. The distinction of several English concepts is carried through even in cases where all of them are covered by one English word which has no additional signification.

The translations are given according to this pattern: “The international word given means in English I. so and so (1. in the first sense; 2. in the second sense; 3. in the third sense); II. such and such (1. in one sense; 2. in another sense; 3. in still another sense)”. When no subdivisions are indicated, this simpler pattern results: “The international word given means in English 1. so and so; 2. such and such.”

abandono n I. abandonment (1. action of abandoning; 2. state of being abandoned); II. abandon
abbatia (-ía) n 1. abbacy; 2. abbey
accession n 1. accession (“accession to a dignity, a throne, etc.”); 2. adherence (“adherence to a treaty, a party, etc.”)
acquisition n acquisition (1. act of acquiring; 2. thing acquired)


Types of Definition. — To clarify or circumscribe a particular English concept, various devices have been employed. Often the meaning of a word is restricted by the addition of a synonym. In other cases it is circumscribed by an example introduced by the phrase “as in.” Thirdly an explicit definition is given, preceded by a numeral or an equal sign. Finally, in the case of specifically technical words, the meaning intended is often identified by a subject label, as “mathematics” or “medicine.”

abbordabile adj approachable, accessible
abbreviatura n abbreviation (=shortened form of a word)
abducer [-duc-/-duct-] v to lead away, abduce; 2. [Physiol.] to abduct
acquesto n acquisition (=thing acquired)
adresse [F] n address (1. formal communication; 2. as in “address of a letter, package, etc.”)
ambiente adj ambient, surrounding
ambito (ám-) n ambit, circuit, circuitous route


Supplementary Synonyms. — No attempt has been made to list all possible English synonyms. In a considerable number of instances, however, a fully satisfactory rendering of an international meaning would neglect the fact that in practice its most frequent rendering is a somewhat specialized synonym of the initial translation. In such cases the English translation has been supplemented by synonyms and quasi-synonyms, also by subject labels, introduced by phrases like also, specifically, specially.

abattitor n one who knocks down; also: feller, wood-cutter, slaughterer, etc.
amorphe adj amorphous; specif.: [Chem.; Geol.; Biol.; etc.]


Base Words. — Words printed entirely in roman characters are “base words,” that is, non-derivatives regardless of whether or not they in turn permit the formation of derivatives of their own. Some such words are base words only from the point of view of the international language while it is perfectly possible to pursue their formation in other languages to simpler elements.

acere n maple, maple tree
anathema [-ma/-mat-] (-átema) n [Eccl.] anathema
corage (-áje) n courage


Derivatives. — Every base word that does have derivatives is followed by a complete list of them identified by smaller print and the initial indication, Hence: . . .

The “hence-series” are organized in such a way that the pattern or “tree” of the entire derivational family can be easily visualized. Continuous series are marked by hyphens between all links. A second or subsequent branch starting again from the base word is separated from its equals by semicolons. Side branches taking off from a link in the preceding series are separated by commas.

acquirer [-quir-/-quest-/-quisit-] v to acquire
Hence: acquiribile; acquesto; acquisition; acquisitor; acquiritor

alien adj alien (=differing in nature)
Hence: alienism; alienista; alienar-alienabile-alienabilitate, inalienabile-inalienabilitate, alienation, alienator, alienate-alienataro

anulo n ring (=circle of metal or other material); also: ringlike object; anulo piscatori fisherman's ring
Hence: anuletto; anular; anulose


Compounds. — Compounds are represented in the hence-series by one illustration for every distinct type. The fact that a sample compound represents several or many actual or possible others of the same type is indicated by a following “etc.”

a prep 1. to (a point in space or time, a goal, etc.); 2. at (a point in space or time, a stage of development, etc.); a (+inf) to; also: for (+gerund); sala a attender waiting room
Hence: [apena] etc.

aceto n vinegar
Hence: acetato, acetabulo; acetone; acetic; acetose; acetificar-acetification; acetamido etc.


Secondary Base Words. — Often a portion of one derivational family can be considered a sub-family of more or less independent standing. This holds true particularly when the original family is very large or when its branches extend into fairly specialized spheres of meaning. The initial words of such sub-families are derivatives. They figure consequently in “hence-series” but are followed by the conventional symbol “&” which is to indicate that in its proper alphabetical place the word is listed as a secondary base word with a “hence-series” of its own.

ambir v 1. to go round (something), surround, 2. to go round after, solicit
Hence: ambiente; ambition &; ambito

ambition n ambition
Hence: ambitiose

ambitiose adj ambitious


Word Structure. — All derived formations listed in “hence-series” are listed as entry words in their proper alphabetical place. In so far as they are affix formations that portion of them which represents the base word is printed in roman, the rest in italic characters. In so far as they are compounds their elements are separated by a raised dot. All compounds, whether or not they appear in a hence-series, are treated as heads of actual or possible sub-families. All non-base words can be traced back to their base or — in the case of compounds — to their constituent elements by observing the dots and italic characters appearing in their printed form.

abbreviar v to abridge, abbreviate
Hence: abbreviamento-abbreviation-abbreviative-abbreviator; abbreviatura

abbreviator n 1. abridger, abbreviator; 2. [R. C. Ch.] abbreviator

aero·dynamic adj aerodynamic
Hence: aerodynamica

aerodynamica n aerodynamics

breve adj brief, short
Hence: breviario; brevitate; abbreviar &; breve-breveto &; semibreve etc.


Derivative Entries and Base Word Entries. — In tracing a derivative to its base or a compound to its elements, one must bear in mind that the form in which a word appears in its derivatives or in compounds may differ slightly from its independent original form. In the latter it may have a desinence which does not appear in the derived formation. When looking for the base entry of a word encountered in a derived formation, one has to consider that full verbs have added to their stems one of the endings -ar, -er, or -ir; while in the case of nouns the termination may be -a, -o or -e; also, more rarely, -um, us, -on, etc.; in the case of adjectives the addition is -e.

abbate n abbot
Hence: abbatessa; abbatia-abbatial

abbatial adj abbatial

abdominal adj abdominal

abdomine n abdomen
Hence: abdominal


Hyphenated Entries. — When the base has no independent existence but occurs merely in derivatives or compounds, it is listed in hyphenated form with full indication of its function in other formations.

all- adj [occurring in compounds] allo-, all- (=other)
Hence: allotrope etc.

disquir- [-quir-/-quisit-] v [occurring in derivatives]
Hence: disquisition


Reference Entries. — Derivatives in which the base word appears in a form deviating by more than the absence of a termination are connected with the base by a reference entry.

abduct- see abducer

acquest- see acquirer

acquisit- see acquirer

act- see ager

albricoc n apricot
Hence: albricochiero

albricoch- see albricoc

albricochiero n apricot tree

anathemat- see anathema

anathematisar v [Eccl.] to anathematize

disquisit- see disquir

disquisition n disquisition


Bracketed Entries. — Bracketed entries are words used in one of the major traditional auxiliary languages. They are included in this Dictionary as being neither incompatible with its principles nor a necessary product of them.

[ad] prep 1. to; 2. at (=a)

[alc·un] adj some, any; also: a few (=alicun)

[alia] [L] npl other things; inter alia inter alia, among other things

[alora] adv then (1. at that time; 2. in that case, consequently)

[apena] adv hardly, scarcely (=a pena)